The Mother Divine
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Edited, compiled, and translated by VDN Rao

Chapter II

Teaching on what the Self or the Inner - Conscience is all about!

1. Atha Bhagavaan Shaakaayanyah supreeto braveed Raajaanam, Maha Raja Brihadrateshvaaku vamsha dhwaja sheeghram atmagjnaa kritakrityastvam marunnaamneti vishrotoseeti, ayam vaa va khalvaatmaa te, yahkatamo Bhagavaa iti, tam hovaacheti/ Dehendriya mano buddhi praanaanaam madhye kim anyatamah kim vaa tad vilakshane anya iti prashnaarthah, tatra samghaata vilakshana evaameti gururuttaram pratijajne

The Lustrous Agni Jwaala named Saakaayanya was pleased with the reply of King Brihadratha the symbol of Ikshvaaku Clan and queried the latter to quickly whisper to the passing wind about what precisely the substance of his query was. Then the specific and pointed question raised by the King was as to whether the ‘antaratma’ or the Inner Consciousness named Conscience was distinct from the Physique, its senses and mind and the connecting link of Praana or the composition of all these components! In other words: Is the total composition of all these units what ‘Antaratma’ all about!

2. Atha ya esha ucchvaasaavishtambhaaneno urthvam utkraanto vyayamaano avyayamaanaas tamah pranudati esha aatmaa iti aaha Bhagavan maitrih, iti evam hi aah, atha ya esha samprasaadosmaa - cchareeraat samutthayaa param jyotir upasampadya svena rupenaabhishpadyat iti esha aatmeti hovaachataad amritam, abhayam, etad Brahmeti

Self is that who dispels ‘tamas’ or darkness or ignorance when respiration moves, does not stop yet at the verge of breakdown, is of that animated suspension of ‘praana’. This is the definition by Maitri! It states that at that very moment when the body verges into the climactic turn of the acme of pleasure and illumination which is called the Conscience or the Self or Bliss the Brahman which is Everlasting. Chhandogya Upanishad vide VIII.iii.4- 5 annotates further:

Atha ya esha samrasaadosmaat shareeraat samutthaaya param jyotir upaasampadyaa svena rupenaabhi nishpadyate, esha aatmeti hovaacha, etad amritam abhayam, etad brahmeti; tasya ha vaa etasya braahmano naama satyam hi// Taani ha vaa etaani trini akshraani sat-ti- yam iti;tad yat sat tadamritam, atha yat ti tan martyam, atha yad yam tenobhe yacchati yad anenobhe yacchati tasmaad yam, ahar ahar vaa evam vit swargam lokameti

Now the Self is what exists in the heart and clean knowledge which leads to virtue as a stepping stone for the heavenly world. When a person is peaceful and composed, then only he could rise up from his body and dwell in his true nature of virtue. Indeed that is the Self in purity with neither fear nor falsehood. That truly is the Truth with is everlasting and an equivalent expression of Self or Brahman. The Truth comprises three words:’ Sa’ for Immortal-‘ti’ for mortal and falsehood and ‘yam’ the controller. Truly enough, one who meditates Truth and Heart in unmitigated form are stated to be in the precincts of heaven!

3. Atha khalviyam Brahma Vidya Sarvopanishad Vidya vaa Raajan asmaakam bhagavataa Maitrina khyaataaham te kathaishmaameeti, athaapahataa paapmaanas tigmaa tejasaa urthvaretaso vaalikhilyaa iti shruyante, atha kratum prajaapatim abruvan, Bhagavaan Shakatam ivaa chetanam shariiram kasyaisha khalvaidrisho mahimaatindriya bhutasya enaitaid vidham etat chetanaavat pratishthaapitam prachodayitaa vaa asya, yad Bhagavan vetsi tad asmaakam bruheetii, taan hovaacheti/
Maha Raja! This is the ‘Brahma Vidya’ or all about the Awareness of Brahman as explained in various Upanishads and the Sacred Scriptures and underscored by the respectable Maitri. Now, you may have heard of Vaali-khilyaas of very short stature clinging to tree branches performing ‘tapas’. They were harnessed by Arunadeva the Charioteer of Bhaskara to yoke the chariot’s speed per nimesha at 2202 yojanas! [yojana 13 km as per Bhagavata Purana 900,000 yojanas] In the Surya Mandali, Devatas and Rishis were praising the magnificence of Bhaskara, Gandharvas were singing, Apsarasas were dancing along the chariot, Sarpas were decorating the chariot, and six thousand Valakhilya Rishis were hanging on the four peripheries of the chariot. These include fourteen Gandharvas, Apsaraas and other demigods, divided into seven parties and perform ritualistic activities to worship the Supersoul through the Sun-god according to different names. These Vaalikhilyas are devoid of even traces of evil and are of brilliant glory and chastity. They addressed Kratu Prajapati and requested Him to explain about the physique of various Living Beings which was like a cart without any knowledge of the Supreme. They further desired to know about the nuances of Paramartha or the Awareness of the Supreme energy!

4. Yo ha khalu vaavoparishthah shruyate guneshvivordhva retasah sa vaa esha shuddhah puutah shunyah shaantopraano niratmaanaanantokshayyah sthiraa shashvatojah swatantrah sve maheemni tishthati ajenadam shareeram chetanaavat pratishthaapitam prachodayitaa vaishopiasyeti, te hochur, Bhagavan, katham anendrashenaanishthe naitad vidham idam che tanavat pratishthaapitam prachodayitaa vaishosya katham iti, taan hovaacha

The Vaalikhilyaas were then explained by Prajapati as follows describing the unique one who had the features of being aloof although he was amid all other human beings; he would be pure, spotless, empty or feeling lost, serene, gasping, mindless, stable, independent, and of such extraordinary traits. He stands for his own supremacy. Indeed He is His own self-driving force. Then the vaalikhilyas expressed their doubt that as to how that could be possible! In this context, two significant Upanishads are quoted: Chhandogya Upanishad VII.xxiv first: Infinity is beyond comprehension and indeed within One Self! VII.xxiv.1-2) Yayta naanyat pashyati naanyachrunoti naanyad vijaanaati sa bhumaa; atha yatraanyat pashyati anyacchrunoti anyad vijaaniti tad alpam; yo vai bhumaa tad amritam, atha yad alpam tan mrityam;sa, Bhagavah, kasmin pratishtha iti; sve mahimni, yadi vaa na mahimneeti// Go ashvam iha mahimeti achakshate, hasti hiranyam daasa bharyam, kshetraani aayatanaaneeti; naaham evam bravimi, braveemiti hovaachaanyo hi anyasmi pratishthita iti/ ( Now, the definition of Infinity would mean such that where one would not be able to see, hear, feel and understand anything. In the situation of the Self and the Infinity get united or as both are the reflections of each other, whom should one see, hear, feel or understand! Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is quoted in this very context vide II.iv.14: As Maitreyi got enlightened, she got confused and told Yagjnyavalkya so and the latter explained to her: ‘Yatra hi dvaitamiva bhavati taditata itaram jighnati,taditara itaram pashyati, taditara itaram shrunoti, taditara itaramabhivadati, taditara itaram manute, taditara itaram vijaaneeti; yatra vaa aya sarvamaatmaivaa bhutatkena kam jighnet, tatkena kam pashyet, tatkena kam shrunuyaat, tatkena kamabhivadet, tatkena kam manveet, tatkena kam vijaaneeyat? Yenedam sarvam vijaanati tam kena vijaaneeyat? Vijnaataaramare kena vijneeyaaditi? In other words, when there is duality, then one smells, sees, hears, speaks thinks and knows differently. But now when Brahman and Self are just the same, then what should one smell, hear, speak, think, know, see, through what! This is because both are just the same: ‘Through what should one know That owing to which all this is known-through what, o Maitreyi, should one know the Knower?’ Thus Sanat Kumara explained to Narada that which indeed was the Infinite was Immortal while that which was finite was mortal! He further explained that in the mortal world, one’s glory comprised cows, horses, elephants, gold, servants, women, fields and houses. Then how indeed would one guess that Infinity and its glory could be measured! The reply was that Infinity was immeasurable and has no parallels!

5. Sa vaa esha sukshmo agraahyo adrushyah purushasamjno buddhi purvam ihaaivaavartemsheneti suptasyeva abuddhipuurvam vibodhaa evamiti, atho yo ha khalu vaavaitasyaamsoyam yaschaitaamaat- rah pratipurushah kshetragjnaah samkalpaadhya vasya abhimaanaanalingah prajaapatir chetanenedam shareeram chetanavat pratishthaapitam prachodayitaa vaishopyasyeti, te hochur bhagavan, yadyanendrashyenaa nishthenaitaad vidham idam chetanavat pratishthaapitam prachodayitaa vaishopyasyeti, te hochur bhagavan yadenendrashenaa nishthenaitaad vidham idam chetanavat pratishthaapitam prachodayitaa vaishosya katham iti: taan hovaacheti

Indeed the subtle, unrealisable, and invisible Self who is an inherent, indwelling awareness is a mute spectator within the body of each Being who is omniscient and omnipotent; that dormant and outstanding energy is a self-starter with resolution and Self Interest; that Supreme Self as the ‘Antarama’ is Prajapati Himself, who is the Self Driving Force par excellence! Prajapati is also known as Vaishva by whose innate vigjnana or knowledge and ‘buddhi-purvam’ or due to His native and inborn awareness realises the ‘kshetrajna’ the knower of the body; in other words, the Supreme Knower of ‘kshetram-shareeram-aham’!
Chhandogya Upanishad explains: VII.xxv.1-2) Sa evaadhastaat, sa uparishtaat, sa paschaat, sa purastaat, sa dakshinatah, sa uttaratah, sa evedam sarvam iti, athaato sarvam iti, athaatohamkaaraadesha eva, aham evaadhasaat, aham uparishtaat, aham paschaat, aham purastaat aham dakshiatah aham uttaratah aham vedam sarvam iti// Athaata aatmaadesha eva aatmaivaadhastaat, atmoparishthat, aatmaa paschat atma purastaat, aatma dakshinah, aatmottaatah, aatmamaivedam sarvamti; sa vaa esha evam pasyann evam manvaana eam vijaanannaatma raatir aatma krida aatma mithuna aatmaanandah, sa swaraad bhavati, tasye sarveshulokeshu kaamacharo bhagavati, tasyasarveshu lokeshu kaamacharo bhavati, atha yenyathaato viduh, anya raajaanas te kshayyaa loka bhavati, teshamsarveshu lokesva akaama-charo bhavati//

Brahman is omnipresent as he is below, above, behind, in front; in South, in North and is indeed all this. Hence His instruction that is not only Infinite but is also in everything from Brahma the Creator of the Universe to a piece of grass. Hence He is indeed the Individual Soul the Antaratma. Hence the further instruction that the Self is below, above, behind, in front, in all the Directions. Anyone who looks within has seen Him as he is one’s mirror image! He is free of movement, speech, thought, vision, hearing and touch. The concept of duality is totally misplaced. This is so but for the interaction of the Jnanendriyas and karmendriyas or the body parts and the sensory organs. Mortality is for the body and never ever for the Soul and indeed that is the Eternal Truth.

Omni Presence of Prajapati in the entire ‘Charaachara Jagat’.

6. Prajaapatir vaa ekogre tishthat, sa naaram ataikah, sotmaanam abhidhaatwaa bahveeh prajaa ashrjata, taa ashvamevaaprabuddhhaah apraanaah sthaanur iva tisha maanaa apasyaat, sa naaramata, somanyataitaasaam pratibodhanaayaabhyantaram vivishaami, sa vaayur ivaatmaanam kritvaabhya ntaram praavishat/ Sa eko naashakat: sa panchadhaatmaanam vibhajyotjate, yah praanopaanah samaana udaano vyaana iti/ Athaayam ya urthvam uktraamati esha vaa va sa praanotha yoyam avaan samkraamati esha vaa va sopaanotha yena vaa etaa anugraheetaa iti esha vaa vasa vyaanothaa yoyam sthavishtho dhaatur annasyaapaane praapayati anishtho vaangenge samaana yati esha vaa vaa sa samaanaa samgjnaa uttaram vyaanesa rupam chaiteshaam antaraa prasutir evodaanasyaatha yoyam peetaashitam udgirati nigirateeti vaishaa vaa saa sa udaanah, atho paamshur antaryaamam abhidavaty antaryaama upaamshunaachaita yor antaraa devoushnyam praasuvat/ Yad aoushnyam sa purushotha yah purusha sognir vaishvaanarah/ Anyatraapi yuktam ayam agnir vaishvaa -naro yoyam antah purushe yenedam annam pachyate yad idam adyate, tasyaisha ghosho bhavati/ Yametat karnaav apidhaaya shronisha da yado utkramishyan bhavati nainam ghosham shrunoti, sa vaa esha panchadhaatmaanam vibhajya nihito guhaayaam, mano mayah praana shareero Bhaa rupah satya sankalpa aakaashameti. Sa vaa eshosmaad hridantaraad akrataartho manyaataartham ashnaaneeti/ Athah khaaneemani yaanimaani etaani asya rashmayah karmendriyaani bhitvoditah panchaabhee rashmibhir vishayam atti, iti budheendriyaani yaanimaani etaani asya rasmayah karmendriyaani asya hayaa, ratham shariram mano niyantaa, prakritee mayosya pratodaneena khalviritah paribhyraramatidam shareeram chakram iva mrityavenedam shareeram chetanavat pratishthaapitam rachoyavitaa vaishyopyasyeti/

Prajapati felt loneliness and having got bored without any activity or diversion, created stone-like and lifeless objects as a pastime. He was then tempted to make them tick with life. That was possible only if he himself could enter into them partially. He then pondered deep and divided himself into five parts considering the essence of life as ‘praana’- the basic component of existence of any Being as the inhalation by way of an intake of air as also the outlet for the praana as ‘apaana’ at an exit point of a body. Then apparently he had to create three support airs as ‘vyaana’ to balance the inhalation and exhalation. He then realised there would have to be ‘panchendriyas’ five organs of each physique of creation viz. Pancha Karmendriyas Five organs of mobility and Pancha Jnanedriyas Five Organs of Cognition viz. Ghrana-Rasana-Chakshu-Twak-Shrotra or Nose, Tongue, Eyes, Skin and Ears. Accordingly He manifested ‘samaana’ to mobilise food and liquids among the body parts as also ‘udaana’ to distribute the intakes appropriately. In this context, Pancha Karmendriyas or Five organs of mobility and Pancha Jnanedriyas Five Organs of Cognition viz. Ghrana-Rasana-Chakshu-Twak-Shrotra or Nose, Tongue, Eyes, Skin and Ears have an important role to play. Having created the various Beings thus, superimposing the Self into the Beings, then between the two was created, Prajapati manifested Himself as ‘Vaishvaanara Agni’ the Universal Fire, a facet of the latter being utilised for digestion of food and water consumed by the Beings. [Vaishwanara Agni Brahman declares his splendour clearly distinguishing Truth/Untruth: Ayamagnir Vaishwaanaro yoyamantah purushe, yenedam annam pachyate yadidam adyate; tasyaisha ghosho bhavati yam etat karnaavapidhaaya shrunoti sa yadoskramishyan bhavati nainam ghosham shrunoti/ (After identifying with the radiance of mind, then Vidyut or Lightning, and Speech signifying a cow and its means of meditation, now another medium of mediation is Agni and the personification within it as a Being viz. Vishvaanara, since Shruti states ‘Ayamagni Vaishvaanara’; indeed this Agni is well outside the Purusha or a Human and far before the human body! It digests food consumed by the person and the heat of his stomach. As the fire digests the food, it emits sound stopped by the ears with one’s fingers. Thus one should meditate upon the Agni as Vaishwanara or Viraja. Indeed however, when a Being leaves the body, he or she no further hears the sound since the ‘bhokta’ or the Consumer in the body loses his sense of hearing.) vide Brihadaranyaka Upanishad vide. V.ix.1] This ‘Jatharaagni’ or the digestive fire does create mild sound which is dormant as one might feel by one’s own eyes; when a human being departs, that inner heat leaves the body even while the ‘Pancha Praanas’ too do so. Thus, the inner breath, the heat and the senses as also the mind and memory power are the bodily assets and are closely inter linked to the Inner Soul the ‘daharaakasha’ or the ‘Antaratma’ and as the life concludes It gets dissolved into the Outer ‘Parama Akasha’ and the Pancha Bhutas or the Prithivi- Aapas-Tejas-Vayu-Akasha. These very Five Elements comprising Earth-Water-Fire-Air-and Sky are also reflected as the Panchendriyas of a body or the Sensory Organs and their respective functions. Thus: eshapancha dhaatmaanaam vibhajya nihito guhaayaam, mano mayah praana shareero bha rupah satya sankalpa aakaashameti’/ These five outlets are the organs of perception and action comparable as five horses of a chariot or the body viz. existence or life, the charioteer being the ‘buddhi’ or mind; the whip being one’s own conduct; the reins the organs of perception, and the Karmendiyas being the organ of action. Above all the Conscience or the Self is the ‘watch dog’ as it were which is the silent witness as titled as ‘Antaratma’ the true mirror-reflection of the Almighty Himself!

Chhandogya Upanishad vide III.13.8 aptly summarises the process of Prajapati’s creation as follows: III.xiii. a) Tasya ha vaa etasya hridayasya pancha deva-sushayah, sa yosya praan sushih: sa praanah tah- chakshuh, sa Adityah, tad etat tejonnaadyam iti upaaseeta, tejasvi annaado bhavati ya evam veda/ (This heart has five door-like openings protected by Devas. The eastern opening is Praana of the Pancha Praanas; this Praana being the up-breathing is in the eye of the body and is governed by Surya Deva. Praana is the cause and consequence of food and the form of well-being) III.xiii. b) Atha yosya dakshinah sushih sa vyaanah, tacchotram, sa Chandramaah, tad etacchreeesh cha yashah cheti upaaseeta shrimaan yashashvi bhavati ya evam veda/ (The southern door is Vyana, the ear and the Moon; this is meditated as prosperity and fame and involves movement and use of strength; it controls Praana the up-breathing and the Apana or the out-going or the exhaling.) III.xiii. c) Atha yosya pratyan sushih sopaanah, saa Vaak sognih tad etad Brahma varchasam annnaadyam iti upaaseeta Brahma varchase annaado bhavati ya evam veda/ (The western opening is Apaana and it signifies Vaak and Agni or Speech and Fire; it also stands for the two bywords for Study of Vedas and food for eating. It is of downward movement and results in ‘visarjana’ or excretion) III.xiii. d) Atha yosyodan sushih sa Samaanah, tan Manah, sa Parjan-yah, tad etad keertischa vyushtih cheti upaaseeta,kirtimaan vyushtimaam bhavati ya evam veda/ (The northern door is called Samaana, which is about the stability of mind and gracefulness of body; it also represents clouds which invariably, signify ‘nirmalata’ or clarity of sky! III.xiii. e) Atha yosyordhvah sushih sa Udaanah, saVaayuh, sa Aakaashah, tad etad ojas cha mahah cheti upaaseeta, ojasvee mahasaanbhavati ya evam veda/ (The upward opening is Udaana, which is Vaayu or Air and Antariksha or Space as Brahman is to be meditated as in the Forms of Ojas or Vigour and Mahat or Infinity. Udaana being significant for upward movement stands for progress and status!) III.xiii. f) Te vaa ete pancha Brahma-Purushaah swargasya lokasya dwaara-paah, sa ya etaan evam pancha Brahma Purushan swargasya lokasya dwaara-paan veda, asya kule veero jaayate, pratipadyate swargam lokam, ya etaan evam pancha brahma purushhan swargasya lokasya dwaarapaan veda/ (Now, these are the five persons of Brahman who are the five gate keepers of the heart, the heavenly world. Indeed once an entity is born in the world, the door keepers are pressed into service in the heavenly world. The new arrival is expected to become a model son serving heroic beings, redeeming the debts of his forefathers and engaging by themselves the duties of heavens well deserving to be worthy of the celestial stay! It is by controlling the body parts like eyes, ears, speech, mind and breath by constant meditation and regulating the outside activities that one could achieve Paramatma!)III.xiii. g) Atha yad atah paro divo jyotirdeepyate vishvatah prashtheshu, sarvatah prastheshva anuttameshu uttameshu lokeshu, idam vaava tad yad idam asminn antah purushe jyotih/ (The illumination that brightens far above the heavens and the Lokas, even beyond the Creation of Brahman is truly within one self!) III.xiii.h) Tasyaishaa drishtih, yatraitad asmin sharire samsparshenoshni maanam vijaanaati, tasyaisha suritih yatraitat karnaavapi grihyaninadam iva nadathur ivaagner iva jwalata upashrunoti, tad etad drushtam cha shruam cheti upaaseeta: chakshusyah shruto bhavati ya evamveda, ya evam veda/ (Truly indeed, the perception of THAT is THIS only! The Superlative Radiance of Brahman is felt by the heat of individual body itself. The faculty of hearing, vision, or feeling by touch are all similar to the body of the Self or on the universal scale of the Supreme as the hearings of thunders, visions of lightnings or burnings of Fire. He who knows these parallels is famed and venerable!)

7. Sa vaa esha atmehoshanti kavayah, sitaasitaih karmaphalair anabhibhuta iva prati shareereshu charati avyaktavaat saukashmyaad adrusyavaad agraahyatvaat saukshmyaad adrushyavaad agraahyatvaan nirmamatvaach chaanavasthoshati kartaakartairvaavasthah, sa vaa esha shuddhah shirochalas chalepyovyagro nishpruhah prakshakvad avasthaih svasthascha, ritabhug gunamayena patenaatmaanam antardhaayaa vashihthaa iti avasthitaa iti/ As the sages asserted, the Self is active among all the Beings in ‘Srishti’ freely wandering from one physique to another notwithstanding the actions of the individuals and their ‘karma phalas’ or the resultant fruits whether being positive or negative. That Self the Antaratma the Inner Conscience is invisible, subtle, indiscernible, and everlasting but totally detached and unaffected by the acts of omission and commission.

Chhandogya Upanishad is quoted as Prajapati explains to Indra vide VIII.xii.1): Maghavan, martyam vaa idam shariram aattam mrutyunaa, tad asya amritasyaaashareerasya aatmaanodhishthaanaam, aatto vai sashareerah, priyaapriyaabhyaam, na vai sashareerayya satah priyaapriyaayor apahar asti, ashareeram vaa va santamna priyaapriye sprushtah/ (Do understand this Maghavan, said Prajapati: this body is mortal and is shrouded by death; that is also the place of the Self which is immortal but bodiless! Whatever is embodied as the body is subject to death as that encases the Immortal Self. This outer covering or the body is subject to pleasures and pains or desirable or non-desirable influences. But surely the unembodied Self is totally unaffected by the pluses and minuses or joys and sufferings. Thus the basic inner light has nothing to do the darkness or some occasional flashes of light as joys as retained in the encased body.)

Kathopanishad is quoted as Yamadharma Raja explains to Nachiketa: II.ii.11-15) Eko vashi sarva bhutaanantar- atmaa ekam beejam bahudhaa uyah karoti,tam atmastham yenupashyanti dheeraasteshaam sukha shasvatam netareshaam// Nityonityaanaam chetanschetanaameko buhunaam yo vidadhaati kaamaan, tamaatmasyam yenupashyanti dheeraah; teshaam shaantih shasvato netareshaam// Tadetaditi manyante nirdeshyam oaramam sukham, katham nu tad vijaaneeyaam kimu bhaati vibhaati vaa// Na tara Suryo bhaati na chandrataarakam nemaa vidyuto bhaanti kutoyam agnih, Tameva bhaantamanubhaati sarvam tasya bhashaa sarvam idam vibhati// (The Inner Self like the Supreme is totally independent, unique, and all pervasive yet creates myriad forms all of the homogenous and untarnished Purity called Consciousness. It is stated that those discerning persons do visualise the Self in the hearts of themselves as that is not corruptible by material pulls nor subject to the influences of body organs and senses! May there be eternal peace and contentment to withdraw themselves into introspection and discard the frivolities and absorb the magnificence of the Self that is what Brahman all about! To a genuine query as to how one should know the Supreme Bliss; is it self-radiant or not! The reply would inevitably be as to how Sun shines; how the Moon and Stars are luminous; how does one would witness flashes of lightnings on the Sky and indeed how is Fire so beaming and glowing! Are not all these indications of that Brahman whose glory is brilliant!)